Sunday, May 20, 2018

May Flowers... and a Flicker

Spring is in full bloom. The trees are fully leafed, most of the Summer birds are back, and the traditional May flowers are brightening the scenery. My Sunday walk in the Dykeman Spring Nature Park was truly a morning well spent!

Dame's Rocket along the Dykeman Walking Trail
Yellow Flag in the Gum Run wetland
Daisy Fleabane, with a small visitor, in the Dykeman Spring wetland
A Northern Flicker rested briefly atop the martin house in the wetland
Swamp Buttercup in the Dykeman Spring wetland
© 2018 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Festival Bach - Pentecost I

In Bach's time, and indeed through much of the history of the Church, Pentecost was the major festival of the church year, even more so than Christmas and Easter. Why? Because Pentecost marks the birthday of the Church itself, when the disciples, energized and emboldened by the descent of the Holy Spirit, emerged from hiding in the upper room and went out into the world to spread the Good News. These days, and especially here in the United States, it's less so, mostly due to the influence of evangelicalism, which has that uniquely American distrust of any and all institutions and sees Christianity not as the Church Universal but more as a way to advance the "salvation" of the individual; for them Pentecost is a nod to the emergence of the Holy Spirit as another of those personal benefits of being a Christian.

But in Bach's time Pentecost was a three-day celebration of the birth of the Church, and some of Bach's best writing was done for this celebration. Like last year I'll be posting cantatas for all three days. Today we'll be listening to BWV 74, Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten (He who loves me will keep my word, Leipzig 1725). This is a particularly magnificent cantata because it's a showcase for the varied styles of Bach's writing, especially that very Italianate aria for alto in the midst of the work. Here's the late Craig Smith of Emmanuel Music on this cantata:
The texts of Marianne von Ziegler always are supported by biblical passages. In the Pentecost cantata BWV 74, there are three movements based upon the Gospel reading in John. In addition, three of the movements are arrangements of a smaller Pentecost cantata, BWV 59. Of all the von Ziegler texts this is perhaps the most successful, mainly because such a large percentage is either from the Bible or chorale texts. The two readings for Pentecost are unique in that the actual narrative is not from the Gospel but from from Acts. The speculative commentary is in the Gospel reading from John. This very metaphysical Gospel reading is the source of all three movements based upon biblical passages. 
The first chorus is an expansion of the soprano-bass duet that begins Cantata BWV 59. Of all of Bach’s arrangements of his own music, this is one of the most remarkable successful. There is something sketchy, even patchy, about the original duet. Its two trumpet parts sound rather puny and the duet writing is unvaried and a little hollow sounding. In examining the two movements, one perceives the choral version to be longer and much more detailed. In fact, the two are exactly the same length and there is no change in any details of the phrasing. Rather, by adding two oboes and oboe da caccia, a third trumpet, and expanding the duet voices to four-voice chorus, Bach opens up the texture and makes something richly varied and exquisitely delicate out of something perfunctory. The expansion of the voice parts is even more ingenious: what were the third and fourth imitative voices in the first violin and first trumpet of BWV 59 become the tenor and alto parts in BWV 74. The orchestra is limited to accompaniment until the first violin and first oboe imitative entrances of the countersubject. What was confusing and a bit jumbled in the earlier version becomes here very clear. Perhaps because of its thinner first version, there is wonderful transparency and delicacy to the chorus. No trumpet and drum chorus in all of Bach has as much quiet music as this one. 
Bach made quite extensive adjustments to von Ziegler texts. His adaptation of her first aria text is a skillful adaptation of a text to fit already extant music. The BWV 59 version has an octave difference between the violin and bass solos. That displacement is eliminated in the more poetic combination of soprano and oboe da caccia. What is rather surprising is how the childlike openness of the soprano aria text seems more in line with the character of the music than the original bass aria text. 
After a brief secco alto recitative, the second biblical passage, a stern sentence in which Jesus quotes from himself becomes a bass aria with continuo. Throughout the cantata there is a richness and variety of orchestral scoring. This aria stands in relief, with its bleak, continuo only texture. Certainly there is Lutheran preacher quality to the setting. The text surely refers back to the wavering faith of the disciples during the passion time. Jesus admonishes the disciples, almost challenging them to take the leap of faith. The grinding and earthbound bass line certainly is in wild contrast to the extravagant and airborne string writing of the following tenor aria. Its capacious orchestra tuttis remind one of the sacred arrangements of secular Cöthen pieces that Bach had done the year before. It is possible that all of this cantata, not just the BWV 59 music, is recycled. For all of its brilliance and appropriateness stylistically, almost none of this cantata sounds like music that Bach had been writing in his second Jahrgang. The aria is certainly the most outwardly exuberant and animated things to appear in this cantata up to this point. Bach goes to great lengths to heighten the intensity and vitality of the writing throughout the movement. Notice how the empty spaces of the opening tenor entrance are filled in at the da capo. 
The influence of Mariane von Ziegler’s rhetorical, rather than poetic, bent is even felt in the third biblical passage to appear in this cantata. Here, rather than using either the gospel or the epistle for the day, a line from Romans is set as an accompanied recitative. There is, unusually in a recitative, even an emphatic text repetition. This recitative not only sets off the wild storm that is the alto aria, but reintroduces the wind choir that is to be so prominent in that aria. The Vivaldian brilliance of the solo violin part in the bravura alto aria is also uncharacteristic of Bach’s Leipzig string writing. Certainly this aria brings a kind of brilliance and energy unheard up to this point in the cantata. In the opening chorus we heard placid and lyrical exchanges between the string and wind choirs. Here they have a pounding intensity further augmented by the fiery solo violin figuration. The violin part clearly has a Tartini-like devilish quality, while it also illustrates the “rattling chains” of hell. Even the references to Jesus’ passion and death have huge hammer-stroke string chords in the Italian manner. Writers have been perplexed and seemingly a little embarrassed by the Italianate vigor and extroversion of this aria. Its fiery rhetoric does not line up with most people’s idea of Pentecost. 
The beautiful chorale melody “Kommt her zu mir, spricht Gottes Sohn” appears here in a grave and quiet setting. Certainly there is a conscious effort to bring the cantata to an inward and quiet close. There is no Pentecost piece quite like Cantata BWV 74. Its relative obscurity clearly generates from confusion about the extraordinary variety of its various movements. The dramatic continuity is difficult to follow, but we have here one of the great visionary metaphysical cantatas in all of Bach. 
© Craig Smith
Today's performance is from a 2001 recording by the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra and Choir under the direction of Ton Koopman. Enjoy!

Photo © 2008 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Sunday, May 13, 2018

Sunday Bach - Sunday After Ascension (Exaudi)

Bach composed two cantatas for Exaudi, the Sunday after Ascension Day. Last year we listened to BWV 44, so this year we'll give a listen to BWV 183, Sie werden euch in den Bann tun (II) (They will put you under a ban, Leipzig 1725). The mood is somber, and the disciples are depressed and afraid now that the center of their world is gone. Here's Ryan Turner of Emmanuel Music on the subject:
The cantata "Sie werden euch in den Bann tun II," BWV 183, was written in May of 1725 during of flurry of creative output for Bach--in a three-week period, he wrote five cantatas. Although it is of modest length and without an opening chorus, this cantata calls for a large number of musicians, which is quite unusual in this context: four soloists, chorus, and an instrumental ensemble of strings and basso continuo enriched with two oboes d'amore, two oboes da caccia and a violoncello piccolo. Bach must have had at that time a variety of fine instrumental possibilities at his disposal in Leipzig, which enabled him to give voice to very distinct sound colors. 
In the gospel reading upon which the cantata is based, John announces the coming of the Spirit of truth, which will be sent to Christians as Comforter for the persecutions they are to endure. The author of the libretto, Christiane Mariane von Ziegler, uses as an epigraph Christ's words reported by St John, "They shall put you under banishment...", and goes on to express the Christian's acceptance of sacrifice and death, through his faith and trust in the Holy Spirit.

The cantata opens with this direct gospel quote by the bass soloist, as the voice of Jesus. Severely orchestrated for four oboes and continuo, including bassoon, the resulting sonority is rather dense, severe and tense. The da capo aria marked molto adagio for anguished tenor that follows, with violoncello piccolo (here played by cello), is an emotionally expressive declaration that "I do not fear the horrors of death". The B section of the aria briefly takes on a tone of consolation ("Jesus will shield me with his protective arm”) escorted by the constant rocking of the cello solo while the continuo marks out the regular pulsation of passing time.

However, hanging over this quiet confidence is tormented chromaticism and doubt of the believer. The short alto recitative that follows is a small masterpiece. Amidst a cushion of chords played by the strings, the oboes, in pairs, volley a short, obsessive figure of four notes -- the same figure sung by the alto on the text "lch bin bereit" (I am ready).

At last prepared by this spiritual realization, the flashy soprano aria is a florid prayer of confidence accompanied by two oboes da caccia in unison and strings. The final chorale borrows the fifth strophe of a hymn by Paul Gerhardt, the chorus singing, "You are a Spirit which teaches how to pray as one should", to the melody of "Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen" ("Help me to praise God's loving-kindness"). 
© Ryan Turner
Today's performance is from a 2000 recording by the English Baroque Soloists and the Monteverdi Choir under the direction of John Eliot Gardiner. Enjoy!

Photo © 2013 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Thursday, May 10, 2018

Bach for Easter - Ascension Day

Today is Ascension Day, commemorating the day when Christ ascended into heaven. Bach wrote several cantatas for this celebration, and I've chosen the earliest, BWV 37, Wer da gläubet und getauft wird (He who believes and is baptised, Leipzig 1724). For a major church festival you would expect Bach to pull out all the stops, full of brass fanfares and grand choral glorias, but this is a surprisingly gentle, almost pastoral, approach to such a major liturgical event. Here's John Harbison of Emmanuel Music on this cantata:
One sentence, from Jesus’ last injunction to the disciples, after his resurrection, before he ascends to heaven, from Mark 16:16, forms the complete text for the opening chorus of this cantata. In his other two cantatas for Ascension Sunday Bach provides Tintoretto-like representations of an impossibly radical action - horns, trumpets and athletic strings are engaged. Here drama is avoided. “Whosoever believes and is baptized shall become blessed”. The concentration is upon belief and baptism.

A single libretto decision determines the character of his piece. The text does not attach Jesus’ next phrase, “and he that believeth not…” and thus the piece is not about the endangered soul (as are many of the cantatas) but about a route to transcendence. Sonority, the glow of A Major, the even flow of unremarkable elements in equilibrium is enough to set this cantata in motion. The oboes state the very elegant and plain principal tune, the violins add a more active motive which quotes the chorale “these are the holy ten commandments”, the basses play a descending scale pattern ending in a cadence, a generic pattern which is conveniently equivalent to the final phrase of the chorale used in the third movement of this cantata. From these ordinary ideas comes a limpid and unburdened music. 
The brief tenor aria celebrates the gift, from Jesus, of faith. Most exceptionally it continues both the key and the character of the chorus, a personal version of the collective statement. It too is warm and devotional, not trying to impress. Unfortunately the violin solo part was lost (from a piece which survived only in parts). There are at least a dozen such situations in the Bach cantatas. It is possible (with varying degrees of difficulty) to replace all of them in an inevitably approximate way which nevertheless preserves continuity and proportion.

At the center of the cantata comes the ‘morning star’ chorale, presented as a vocal duet over an unexpectedly florid cello accompaniment. In the muted frame of the piece as a whole, this is the most eventful, colorful moment. The two singers trade off as leader and follower in a delightful way, and the over-exuberant cello is far more than a commentator.

“Let Jesus deal with good works,” sings the bass in his recitative, “you must make yourself right with God through faith.” At this point in the cantata we wonder whether the baptism theme has been lost, in favor of making the full Lutheran statement about faith, but it reappears most striking at the end of a series of needlessly and brilliantly inventive passages for the singer. Each Noun has a slightly different figurative shape, jagged cursives for the Seal of Grace, upward thrust toward Heaven, at last a very long unwinding stream for Baptism. These lead into a Chorale where for the first time, with suitable restraint, the text and harmony sound a darker tone.

© John Harbison
Today's performance is by the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra and Choir under the direction of Ton Koopman. Enjoy!

Photo © 2014 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Sunday, May 06, 2018


It's finally starting to look like Spring here. The weather has been cooler than normal and all the blooming and sprouting was at least two weeks late, if not more. We finally warmed into more seasonable temperatures, and then last week we had a three-day heat wave with temps into the low 90s (around 33º C). It seems that May has brought it's traditional flowers despite the late start to the season. I went wandering this morning and I've brought you some sights of Spring.

This Dogwood tree is up the street and around the corner from my house
Lots of birds are back for the season, including this Gray Catbird in the Dykeman Spring wetland
The Lilacs are blooming and scenting the air
This magnificent ornamental Cherry is next to the old hatchery house at the Dykeman Spring
The Wild Mustard is up and blooming in the upland meadow in the Dykeman Park
© 2018 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Sunday Bach - Fifth Sunday After Easter


Bach wrote two cantatas for Rogation Sunday, the fifth Sunday after Easter. We listened to the first of those, BWV 86, last year, so this year we'll listen to the other - BWV 87, Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten in meinem Namen (So far you have not asked anything in my name, Leipzig 1725). This is also a small, intimate cantata like last year's, but a bit darker. Still, there's lots of musical beauty here. The late Craig Smith of Emmanuel Music talks about this:
The Rogation Sunday cantata BWV 87 Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten in meinem Namen is one of the most successful of the von Ziegler cantata texts. As is typical with this poet there are two biblical quotations, which generate all of the poetic text. The first is John 16:24. In it Jesus tells the disciples that they will soon understand the difficult metaphors that he has been using. Bach sets this rather severe text in a dense imitative aria for bass with strings doubled by two oboes and oboe da caccia. The duality of God and Son emphasized in the passage is ingeniously portrayed by the fact that the countersubject is a condensation of the last half of the main subject. This gives the movement a circular, layered effect. The continuation of the countersubject is compact and detailed. These three ideas are thrown into every possible combination and key. The aria has the effect of being a tight knot, which is gradually unraveled by the next three movements.

Von Ziegler finds the biblical passage alarming rather than reassuring. It sets off a warning to pray for forgiveness. The secco alto recitative is jagged and austere, as open and barren as the previous aria is dense. The following alto aria with two oboes da caccia obbligato is one of the longest arias in all of the cantatas. It is as if the breadth is needed to explicate the tough nut of the bass aria. The musical materials are complex. The continuo alternates between isolated eighth notes and a rising arpeggio figure. The opening line of the two oboes da caccia generates from the words. The aria is unusually chromatic, even for Bach. The sound of the two oboes da caccia with the alto is so ravishingly beautiful and the harmony so rich, that clearly Bach is portraying mankind's plight and confusion as unusually compelling. The shear repetition of the "vergib" motive is bearable because of the amazing harmonic detail of its context. This motive plays unchanged throughout both the A and B sections. Although this piece was written three years before the St. Matthew Passion, the scoring, the sound and the harmonic language are identical with the arioso, "Ach, Golgatha."

After the dank oboe da caccia texture, the strings in the following tenor recitative are a warm relief. The bass again sings the words of Jesus from John 16: 33 in a brief aria with continuo. Here the texture is much more open and overtly expressive than the beginning aria. Its placement between the string recitative and string aria of the tenor is interesting. The effect is of liberating the tenor to sing his ravishing siciliano aria. It is surprising to find perhaps Bach's most sheer and beautiful siciliano in such a dour context, but the effect is of a great weight being lifted off the soul. The potency of the aria gives it a climactic role in the cantata.

The harmonization of "Jesu meine Freude" is connected to the music of the opening aria. It is no accident that the bass line in many of its phrases encompasses the sixth leap that is the head theme of the first aria. This is in every way an unusual but absolutely top-drawer cantata. The combination of very short and very long sections is calculated and effective. The juxtaposition of the dense style of the opening with the arias is potent and brilliantly achieved.

© Craig Smith
Once again this year I've chosen a performance by the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir under the direction of Ton Koopman. Enjoy!

Photo © 2016 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Sunday, April 29, 2018

Sunday Bach - Fourth Sunday After Easter

Bach wrote two cantatas for the fourth Sunday after Easter, also known as Cantate. Last year I posted BWV 166, so this year I'll post BWV 108, Es ist euch gut, daß ich hingehe (It is good that I go away, Leipzig 1725). This one digs deep into the concept of Christ going away so that the Holy Spirit can come to guide the disciples, with the text taken from John 16 and expanded by Christiane Mariane von Ziegler. Here's the late Craig Smith of Emmanuel Music on this cantata:
Jesus’ predictions of what would happen to the church and how his followers would deal with matters of faith after his departure are mostly dealt with in the Gospel of John. These difficult and sometimes esoteric concepts are the basis for most of the Sundays between Easter and the Ascension. The Sunday called Cantate has one of the thorniest readings in the whole lectionary. Marianne von Ziegler uses two extensive quotes from the designated passage from the gospel of John as the cornerstone of her text for the Cantata BWV 108.

The work begins with an elaborate aria for bass, oboe d’amore and strings. In it Jesus tells the disciples that it is good that he is leaving them; that only with his absence can the Holy Spirit be there. We have seen only a few weeks earlier, in the profound alto aria in BWV 42, the Holy Spirit portrayed as a vaporous, undefinable thing. The character here is more elegant, perhaps less warm than the previous alto aria. The oboe d’amore takes the lead with an elegant extremely flexible line, so highly ornamented and unpredictable in its direction that the accompanying strings can hardly keep up. By the third bar the opening statement has become mysterious and attenuated. It becomes progressively clear that the melody represents the Holy Spirit, something undefinable and later on clearly characterized [in the KJV] as “for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak.” This concept of the Holy Spirit as something that is a reflection of those who perceive it is central not only to the imagery of this cantata, but also to the very structure of the music. The actual bass voice entrance (the voice of Christ) is melodically so transformed from the oboe theme that one has a sense that the Holy Spirit has a life of its own. The oboe part becomes throughout the aria more and more ornamental and elaborate. The voice part only goes into melismas on the words “hingehe” (I depart now}, and “sende” (I will send him to you)

The tenor aria #2 begins with an agitated and vertiginous portrayal of the doubt that is eliminated later in the aria. The transformation of the opening theme to something much more elaborate, the 2 nd passage played under the long held “Glaube” (faith) of the tenor, is the central shape of the work. All of the passages on the words “geht du fort” have an ascending lift to them.

After a brief and didactic tenor recitative comes the centerpiece of the cantata. The 13th verse from the 16th chapter of John is divided by Bach into three sections. The first describes the coming of the spirit of truth to mankind. Bach uses a lively and somewhat awkward theme It is presented in a rigorously imitative fashion with the instruments doubling the voices. The second part of the verse is also fugal is the previously quoted passage about how the Holy Spirit shall not speak of himself. There is something almost jaunty about this theme. The third section says that the Holy Spirit will show you the future. It is surprisingly an ornamented da capo of the opening material, much longer than the original A section. This is one of the most mysterious and thorny choruses in all of Bach. He seems determined to hide its meaning. Its only real resolution is in the beautiful alto aria.

We have seen Bach occasionally use a very block like phrasing to present ideas of great clarity and simplicity. Perhaps the most striking example in the 2nd Jahrgang was the lovely tenor aria in Cantata BWV 93. Although the musical ideas in the alto aria here (#5) are more ornamental, it has the same clarity of phrasings, something that has been noticeably lacking in the previous three concerted pieces of this cantata. Although that clarity becomes somewhat and purposely clouded through the course of the aria it is obvious that he sees this aria as a resolution of some type. It is richly scored for strings, with such beautiful and full harmony that it falls as a balm on the ears after the chorus. There is a particularly wonderful spot where the alto sings an elegant, almost ceremonial, sounding line over a simple string accompaniment that really resolves our doubts. Later on when the alto sings rhapsodically of eternity the voice line crosses all of the phrases set up by the strings in a most creative way.

The beautiful chorale "Kommt her zu mir, spricht Gottes Sohn” appears rarely in the cantatas. This is one of the great harmonizations in the 371 and makes one sorry that we don’t see it more often. 
© Craig Smith
This week's performance is from a recording by the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir under the direction of Ton Koopman. Enjoy!

Photo © 2017 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Monday, April 23, 2018

More Spring Photos in Dykeman Park

I went back to the Dykeman Spring Nature Park today to try to capture shots of some of the birds I missed yesterday. I ended up getting two, plus one surprise visitor. And turtles again; everybody seems to love the Painted Turtles on their log. And my first butterfly shot of the season. I do believe Spring is settling in!

One of the Northern Flickers who avoided me yesterday; I only barely got this shot
Spring color is slowly brightening up the woods in the park
One of two Solitary Sandpipers on the banks of the north duck pond. We seem to be a stop on their migratory route to the Arctic tundra, where they breed.
The painted Turtles were sunning on their log again
A Ruby-crowned Kinglet who flitted around without ever stopping. This is the best shot I could get.
A Cabbage White butterfly sipping on Heal All
© 2018 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Sunday, April 22, 2018

Earth Day 2018

"I stuck my head out the window this morning and Spring kissed me bang on the face."  – Langston Hughes

Today is Earth Day, and on top of that, after a late start to Spring this year, today was finally a perfect Spring day. Walking through the Dykeman Spring Nature Park was a total sensory delight; flowers are blooming, trees are finally starting to be covered in green, and a wide variety of birds are singing up a storm. I heard and saw lots of Cardinals, Red-winged Blackbirds, various migratory Warblers, Grackles, Goldfinches, Woodpeckers, and a pair of male Flickers singing at each other across the wetland to make sure each knew to stay in his own territory. Unfortunately none of them were within range of my camera, or if they were they didn't sit still long enough to get a decent shot. And the final sign that Spring really is here - I saw two Painted Turtles sunning in the bog pool next to the north duck pond. This was indeed a great Earth Day. 

Earth Day, by the way, is one day after John Muir's birthday, the man who is rightly considered the godfather of the American environmental movement, and the moving force behind the establishment of our National Parks and National Forests. So to send you off on a tour of what I shot this morning, here are some words of inspiration from a great man:

“The sun shines not on us but in us. The rivers flow not past, but through us. Thrilling, tingling, vibrating every fiber and cell of the substance of our bodies, making them glide and sing. The trees wave and the flowers bloom in our bodies as well as our souls, and every bird song, wind song, and tremendous storm song of the rocks in the heart of the mountains is our song, our very own, and sings our love.” 
- John Muir

Pussywillow catkins in full bloom along the Dykeman Walking Trail 
Crabapple blossoms by the trail
The creek is starting to get something of a green haze about it.
A mama Canada Goose sitting on her nest in the bog pool next to the north duck pond
A Painted Turtle catching some rays in the bog pool
Another Painted Turtle taking advantage of a perfect Spring day
© 2018 by A. Roy Hilbinger 

Sunday Bach - Third Sunday After Easter

Bach wrote three cantatas for the third Sunday after Easter, also known as Jubilate. Last year I posted BWV 103, emphasizing the sorrow in Jesus' death but hope for his resurrection. This year I've gone straight for the glory - BWV 146, Wir müssen durch viel Trübsal in das Reich Gottes eingehen (We must enter the kingdom of God through much tribulation, Leipzig 1726). Listen to that magnificent opening sinfonia! It's the first movement of his D minor Concerto for Harpsichord, rearranged for organ and orchestra; it shows off both Bach's virtuosity on the organ and the virtuosity in the composition of works for the organ. This is just one gorgeous piece of music, and the rest of the cantata keeps up that high standard. Here's the late Craig Smith of Emmanuel Music on this cantata:
Bach Cantata BWV 146 is a curious amalgam of instrumental and vocal music. The first movement is a sinfonia that is an enriched version of the first movement of the D Minor Harpsichord Concerto, here arranged for organ. The second movement of that concerto is the underpinning for the opening chorus. An expressive alto aria with violin obbligato follows. Perhaps the greatest thing in this cantata is the lazy and sinuous soprano aria with flute and two oboes d’amore. This has a tone and color both sensuous and melancholy, unique in all of Bach. The big duet with tenor and bass wipes out all sadness in the cantata and ends the work with a joyous, upbeat quality. The chorale most familiarly known as Jesu Joy of Man’s Desiring ends this long and impressive cantata. 
© Craig Smith
Today's performance is from a 2013 recording by Il Gardelino under the direction of Marcel Ponseele, and featuring the organ virtuosity of Lorenzo Ghielmi. Enjoy!

Photo © 2014 by A. Roy Hilbinger